Propensity Principle (PP)
The PP employs linear logic to propose faith
in the NT God as the best belief as follows:
1. Current scientific knowledge cannot explain how the universe came to exist by means of natural
Thus, it is scientifically possible that the cause of the universe is a supernatural Creator/God.
3. It is also possible that human language,
moral conscience and God consciousness reflect God.
4. When life is
happy, one wishes it would continue indefinitely, so it
is rational to seek immortality.
5. Happiness results from love and justice for all forever, called the duo of desirables
6. The most credible way or
hope of achieving the DOD appears to be resurrection by God.
7. The New Testament (NT) teachings of Jesus and Paul seem
to be more divinely inspired than other scriptures,
because their concept of one just and all-loving God/Judge is spiritually most
the evidence for the resurrection of Jesus is most credible (although not compelling).
8. Thus, it is appropriate to believe in the
NT God and to accept Jesus as God's Messiah,
until/unless a better hope for heaven (or at least utopia) becomes available.
Sticking Points between Atheists
regarding God's existence: Christians view the unique universe theory as compatible with belief
in a God who created it, and the NT gospel culminating with the resurrection of Jesus as both credible and more desirable
(cf. the PP) than atheism. Atheists think a physical explanation for the Big Bang will be discovered, and that
the NT is not credible, thus (in the absence of verifiable modern physical miracles) evidence for God is lacking.
2. God's attributes:
Christians view God (per the NT) as all-loving and perfectly just, the most benevolent Being imaginable. Atheists sometimes
speak as though the God (per some of the OT) in whom they disbelieve is unloving and unjust, like the devil.
3. Moral Free Will: Christians
say that MFW (a meaningful rationale for universal morality, called the “law of love”) is established or actualized
by ultimate just consequences for choosing good or evil, which are heaven and hell. Atheist humanists say that
meaningful MFW (called the “reciprocity principle”) naturally exists and causes most people to gravitate
toward socially acceptable behavior without consequences beyond whatever occurs in this earthly existence, and that moral
relativism is not open to nihilism (for some unexplained “reason”).
4. Jesus: Christians accept Jesus
as Messiah (Son of God), the person chosen by God to fulfill His plan of salvation (foreshadowed by OT sacrifices) via dying
so that God may show grace to repentant humanity without abrogating justice. Atheists think Jesus might have
existed and taught some good things such as the golden rule, but the NT writers who attributed supernatural miracles and resurrection
to him were wrong or lying, and his dying as the atonement for humanity’s sins is incoherent.
5. God's Word: Christians
view the Bible as containing true communication from (inspired by) God regarding how to be saved and how to live morally,
and that verses portraying God as demonic are false, stories describing creation are not meant to be literal, truth may
be conveyed by parables employing figurative language, and historical passages may contain discrepancies about details.
Atheists believe the Bible is mainly untrue other than passages affirming the golden rule.
6. Christians: Christians
accept Jesus’ definition of a disciple as one who obeys God’s will to love everyone (JN 13:35, MT 7:21), which
was reiterated by Paul (GL 6:7-8, 1THS 4:1-7, 2THS 3:2-5, TIT 1:16), which means that God’s grace may be free to those
who genuinely repent, but it is not cheap or given without sincere contrition. Atheists say that anyone who claims
to be a Xian actually is a disciple of Jesus, no matter how evil they behave.
NT theists and atheists begin the philosophical journey side by side (as agnostics) but wind up oceans apart.
They are all on the same tree, but atheists choose to climb out on the branch hanging
over a cliff, while NT theists decide to climb up the branch leading into the clouds. They are all on the same
maze, but some stop at a dead end, while others keep exploring open paths.
I do not call atheists "nihilists", but I say that the unintended implications of their moral philosophy,
which typically is some form of humanism, is moral relativism or subjectivism that logically must admit all opinions, including
both NT theism and nihilism. However, if NT theists are correct, then both atheism and nihilism are
excluded (except for any truth-seeking atheists out there) and Hitleresque people are consigned to hell, but if atheists are
right, then NT theism is excluded but nihilism remains included, which is aptly illustrated by Hitler, who suffered no meaningful
consequence for his evil actions (merely death by suicide), since we all die—many more horribly than he. In other
words, NT theism provides a Rationale (God) for a universal moral imperative (Golden Rule), whereas all atheist-humanism
can offer is a pyrite suggestion.
My KISSed Bible (Key Verses)
MT 22:37-40, "Love the Lord your God... and your neighbor as yourself."
MT 7:12, “Do to others what you would have them do to you, for this sums up the Law and the Prophets.”
2:3b-5, "God our Savior wants all men to be saved and to come to a knowledge of the truth. For there is one God
and one mediator between God and men, the man Christ [Messiah] Jesus."
JN 13:35, "All men [people] will
know that you are my disciples if you love one another."
1THS 5:21, "Test everything. Hold on to the
2THS 1:6a, "God is just".
A Logical Framework for the
History of Beliefs
Typically, history is studied in chronological order.
The drawback of that approach is that the student tends to become mired in relatively minor details before covering all of
the major events. This essay provides a framework of 22 memory pegs that may serve as a skeleton for the body of history
a person desires to learn. Because history in its broadest sense refers to all events in time, it is logical for the
first peg in the timeline to be the beginning of the universe (alpha, the "Big Bang", circa 20
billion years B.C., #1) and the last peg to be its future ending or eschaton (zulu, fade to dark,
c. 20 billion years A.D.?, #22). Alpha includes the formation of Earth (c. 4 billion years B.C.), because human history
requires geography/space as well as chronology/time. The advent of Jesus of Nazareth traditionally has served in Western
cultures as an important event by which to bisect the alpha-zulu timeline (Christ/Christianity, year "zero",
#11), and this framework continues that practice.
Bisecting the time between Christ Jesus and alpha in one direction and zulu in the other depends on a person's purpose
and perspective, but if the purpose is philosophical more than physical, then Moses' founding of Judaism
(circa 1200 B.C., #4) might serve as one event or memory peg and the founding of Islam by Mohammed
(610 A.D. #14) as another, because these religions have been such an integral part of history. Between alpha and Moses,
the invention of writing (c. 4,000 B.C., #3) is worthy of remembering, since history heavily depends on written
records, and after Mohammed, perhaps our lifetime (today, c. 2000+ A.D., #21) should be included, since history
is meaningful only to those who are living in it. We cannot continue constructing the memory framework by bisecting
each segment of history, because the most important people and events are not evenly spaced, so at this point we will proceed
in chronological order.
writing, the appearance of oral language (circa 10,000 B.C., #2) is significant, because this is what writing was invented
to record. After Moses, Hinduism (#5) developed a doctrine of karma that viewed reincarnation as part
of natural reality, then Buddha/Buddhism (#6) reformed Hinduism (circa 520 B.C.), teaching that enlightenment
and nirvana could be attained by means of right meditation rather than by worshipping gods. Both of these are major
religions that should be included in a framework of beliefs. The appearance of atheist-humanism (circa
450 B.C., #7) in the writings of both Confucius (d. 480 B.C.) and Protagoras (d. 420 B.C.)
should be selected, because this belief is the primary philosophical rival of Abrahamic monotheism.
Next in this chronology is the nascence of science
(#8) in Greek culture that is marked by Thales' (d.c. 545 B.C.) attempts to find natural explanations
for phenomena and his concern about the most basic element composing material substances. This was followed by the campaign
of conquest led by Alexander the Great (d. 323 B.C.) that spread Greek culture (Greekism/Hellenism,
#9), so that it greatly influenced all Western or Mediterranean cultures and beliefs. Hellenism included the schools
of Plato and Aristotle (387 & 330 B.C.), which mark the establishment of formal education
in history and other subjects. After the Greeks, the Roman Empire (c. 60 B.C.) or Romanism (#10) dominated
Western history for several centuries.
After Jesus and the apostle Paul founded Christianity (c. 30-68, #11) [all dates from this point are A.D.], Romanism was instrumental
in establishing Roman Catholicism (RC, #12), another major religion warranting a memory peg in this framework,
during the reign of Emperor Constantine following the Nicene Council (325). The teachings of Augustine
of Hippo (d. 430) were dominant in Christendom during a "dark age" in Western civilization that began when
Germanic migrations (#13) ended the Roman Empire (in 476). Then militant Islam (c. 632) conquered Africa's
Mediterranean coast and Spain, where its advance was stopped by Charles Martel, founder of the Carolingian Empire
(c. 732), which ushered in the culture of the medieval ages. During this Dark Age, the Mongol Kublai Khan
(1260-1294, #15) founded the largest empire in history, which served as the interface between the Orient and the West when
Marco Polo made his famous journey. Then the plague or Black Death (c. 1347) killed almost half of
the population of Europe.
European Dark Age was ended by the Renaissance (c. 1500, #16), embodied by Leonardo da Vinci. The Renaissance
had three main contributing factors: the printing press (c. 1450), because literacy opened the door
of knowledge of the details of history and science; global exploration that was begun by the Portuguese around
Africa and furthered by Spain's expeditions across the Atlantic, beginning with Columbus in 1492 and climaxing with the
circumnavigation of the globe by Magellan's crew in 1524 (completing the loop that defined the extent of the world this
history is relating); and Protestantism that was begun by Martin Luther when he nailed his
famous 95 theses to a church door (in 1517, #17) and followed by John Calvin's affirmation of Augustinianism.
persecuted by kings who cooperated with the Inquisition of the RC Popes. Global exploration began a period of European
colonization (#18), led by Spain, then dominated by England following its defeat of the Spanish Armada (1588),
vying mainly with Holland and France for hegemony. The quest for freedom by the colonies culminated with the founding
of the United States of America (1776), which became the world's greatest defender of freedom of faith
or religious tolerance and marks the end of the age of colonization. Unfortunately, this was followed by an age of national
totalitarianism, which might be deemed to have begun with Napoleon (d. 1821, #22), climaxed
with Hitler in World War II (1939-1945) and culminated with Marxist communism and Islamic
concludes at this point, because the number of details that can logically be deemed significant to the history of beliefs
for various reasons (including numerous inventions) begins to grow at an exponential rate, so that memorizing them might seem
overwhelming for many of us. I hope the reader has been edified by this exercise.
PRAYERS OF PAUL
1:3&9b-12 Ephesians 1:15-19
We always thank God, the
For this reason, ever since I heard about I
thank my God every time
Father of our Lord Jesus about your
faith in the LJC and your love I remember you.
In all my
Christ, when we
pray for for all the saints, I have not stopped
prayers for all of you, I always
thanks for you, remembering you pray
with joy because of your
in my prayers…
partnership in the gospel from
first day until now…
God to fill you …I keep asking that the God
of our LJC, …And this is my prayer:
with the knowledge of
his the glorious Father, may give you the
your love may abound more
through all spiritual Spirit of wisdom
and more in knowledge and
depth of insight…
order that you may …that you may know the hope
to which …so that you may
be able to
live a life worthy of
the he has called you, the riches of his
glorious discern what is best and may
Lord and may please him
inheritance in the saints…
be pure and blameless
in every way…
the day of Christ…
fruit in every
…filled with the fruit of
strengthened with …and his incomparably great power for
us who believe…
2THS 3:5&1THS 5:23
We constantly pray for you,
May our LJC and God our Father…
May the Lord direct your
our God may count you strengthen you in every good deed and word.
Hearts into God’s love and
worthy of his calling, and
by his power he may
May God… sanctify you
every good purpose
through and through. May
of yours and every act your
whole spirit, soul and
your faith. body
be kept blameless at
coming of our Lord…
that Teach a Proto-Gospel
The NT indicates that the “gospel” has existed from the beginning. Paul wrote (in GL 3:8), "The
Scripture foresaw that God would justify the Gentiles by faith, and announced the gospel in advance to Abraham:
"All nations will be blessed through you."
Even before or apart from the Hebrew culture, Luke wrote (in ACTS 14:16-17) that "In past generations
God allowed all the nations to go their own way, although He did not leave Himself without a witness, since He did good:
giving rain from heaven and fruitful seasons, satisfying hearts with food and happiness."
Quoting Paul's speech to the Athenians, Luke wrote again (in ACTS 17:26-27
&30), "God has made every nation of men... so that they might seek God, and perhaps they might reach out and find
Him... Having overlooked the times of ignorance, God now commands all people everywhere to repent."
Paul himself wrote (in RM 1:18-20): "The wrath of God
is being revealed from heaven against all the godlessness and wickedness of men who suppress the truth by their wickedness,
since what may be known about God is plain to them, because God has made it plain to them. For since the creation of
the world God's invisible qualities--his eternal power and divine nature--have been clearly seen, being understood from
what has been made, so that men are without excuse."
again (in RM 10:17-18), Faith comes from hearing the message, and the message is heard through the word of Christ. But
I ask: Did they not hear? Of course, they did: "Their voice has gone out into all the earth, their
words to the ends of the world."
can see from these verses that truth sufficient for salvation and judgment in cultures separated from the Judeo-Christian
tradition is revealed through what theologians call "general" or "natural" revelation. Paul
told the Colossians (in CL 1:23): "The gospel that you heard... has been proclaimed to every creature under heaven."
Applying these verses to the Parable of the Talents (MT
25:14-30), we can infer that the man who received the most talents is comparable to a person who has had the opportunity
of learning the full NT gospel of salvation through faith in Jesus as Messiah. The person who received fewer talents
may be viewed as representing those who experienced the OT dispensation. And the person given only one talent is like
a pagan who has access to nothing more than knowledge gleaned by meditating upon nature. Each person will be judged
fairly on the basis of the truth he/she had the opportunity of learning.
Life is never simple; 1:2- if it’s not one thing, it’s another.
An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure.
3:1- Accentuate the positive;
eliminate the negative.
4:1- Love to learn and learn to love.
5:1- It takes two to tango or tangle.
Two wrongs do not make a right.
7:1- You are what you eat (and read and
listen to and look at, etc.)
8:1- Communication is key.
9:1- Variety is the spice of life.
“God’s Plan A”
Every baby is wanted and born into a happy home,
where both parents are spiritually mature or
able to provide
for the child’s emotional as well as physical needs.
2. Every child is raised by both parents, who are Spirit-filled or Christ-like,
so the right way to believe and behave
is taught by both words and deeds
and there is no good reason to be rebellious.
3. Every child becomes able to comprehend spiritual reality
and at the stage
of accountability (about ten) decides
to accept God as Lord or be spiritually reborn.
4. Every reborn adolescent continues learning truths
that will enable them to become mature adults and parents,
unless they choose to remain celibate.
adult perseveres in manifesting God’s love and witnessing for Christ
as they become wise senior adults and grandparents.
6. God’s kingdom of heaven is achieved on earth,
but when sin and stupidity hinders plan
plan B is for people to repent and do the best they can to approach plan A.
Repent of Unbelief Believe
God’s word ACTS
God’s word Love Jesus
Obey Jesus JN
JN 15:12, MT 22:39
Love, forgive, etc.
Go to heaven
MT 6:14f., 7:21
“Biblical Synonyms for Divinity”
“God in a Box”
(Connect the dots)
* omniscient *
Sin usually is a cluster or chain of sins, as illustrated
by the first man and woman’s fall from innocence (in GN 3:1-6) as follows:
1. The first sin might have been too much faith or not doubting the lie of the serpent (1JN 4:1, 2CR
2. The second sin was adding to or perverting God’s word (RV 22:18f.), because in the recorded
instructions to Adam God had said only that they must not eat the fruit; He had not said they could not touch it (GN 2:17).
3. The third sin was one of omission. Adam and Eve neglected to ask God about the devil’s teaching
(JM 4:17, 1:5).
4. The fourth sin must have been greed for the forbidden fruit, because the inner sinful attitude always
precedes the outward sinful action (CL 3:5).
The fifth sin was actually eating the forbidden fruit, which was not an
The sixth sin was covering up and lying (PS 32:1-5, 1JN 1:9). Note that
Adam and Eve were both deceived and enabled each other to sin (v.6-7). (1TM 2:14 is problematic.)
"Scriptures stating or implying God's requirement for salvation stated
in terms of faith (F) and works (W)"
1. Repent (4:17, F),
2. Recognize one's spiritual poverty (5:3, F)
3. Be righteous (5:20, W)
4. Love your enemies (5:44,
5. Serve God (6:24&33, W)
6. Enter the narrow gate (7:13, F)
7. Do God's will (7:21 & 12:50, F&W)
8. Hear and act (7:24, F&W)
9. Confess Jesus
10. Love Jesus (10:37, F)
11. Give life to Jesus (10:39& 16:24-25, F)
12. Have no doubt (11:6, F)
13. Come to Jesus
14. Learn from Jesus (11:29, W)
15. Be for Jesus (12:30, F)
16. Understand (13:23, F)
17. Be good (5:48 & 13:38,43,49,
18. Value salvation (13:44-46, F)
19. Believe Jesus (16:16& 21:32, F)
20. Become humble (18:3-4 & 19:14, W)
21. Forgive others
22. Give to the poor (19:21, W)
23. Follow Jesus (19:21&29, F)
24. Yield fruit (21:43, W)
25. Dress appropriately
(22:11-14, cf. RV 16:15, W)
26. Love God, neighbor &
self (22:37-40, W)
27. Hold out until the end (24:13, F)
28. Keep awake (24:42 & 25:13, F)
29. Be ready (24:44, F&W)
30. Be trustworthy
and useful (25:21&30, F&W)
31. Help Jesus' brothers
32. Be righteous/do right (25:46, F&W)More from Mark
33. Accept the kingdom (10:15,
34. Believe the Gospel (16:16, F)
35. Receive baptism (16:16, W)
36. Be hated
37. Lend (6:35, W)
38. Judge not (6:37, W)
39. Invite the
poor to your party (14:13-14, W)
40. Use wealth wisely (16:9,
41. Stand firm (21:19, F)
42. Be born again (3:3&6, F)
43. Come to the light (3:21, F)
44. Obey the Son
(8:51 & 14:15, W)
45. Drink living water (4:14, F)
46. Heed Jesus (5:24, W)
47. Do right (5:29, W)
48. Work for the food of life
49. Partake of the bread of life (6:33-35&51,
50. Eat the flesh and drink the blood of X (6:54,
51. Dwell within the truth (8:31&35, W)
52. Hate self; serve Jesus (12:25-26, W)
53. Accept Jesus' words (12:47, F)
54. Follow Jesus' example (13:15-17, W)
55. Dwell in Jesus and in love (15:5-10, F&W)
56. Heed his
command (15:10-12, F)
57. Know God and Jesus Christ (17:3, F)
58. Believe Jesus is Christ/Son (20:31, F)
59. Call on the name of the Lord (2:21, F)
60. Repent and be baptized (2:38, cf.3:19, F&W)
61. Believe in Jesus (10:43, cf. 13:39&48, F)
62. Believe in the Lord Jesus (16:31, cf. 18:8, F)
63. Repent and
turn to God (26:20, F)
64. Have faith (1:17, F)
65. Persist in doing good (2:7&10, cf.3:12, W)
66. Obey the law (2:13, cf. 3:20, W)
67. Have faith
in Jesus Christ (3:22, 26&28&5:1, F)
68. Confess Jesus
as resurrected Lord (10:9, F&W)
69. Call on the name of the Lord
From 1 Corinthians
70. Believe (1:21, F)
71. Hold firmly to the gospel (15:2, F)
From 2 Corinthians
72. Repent (7:10, F)
My personal belief system continues
to evolve until I die...